YOGITA RAGHUVANSHI-INDIA’S FIRST WOMAN TRUCK DRIVER


India, a developing nation has been showing a positive attitude to the upliftment of Women in all sectors. As in any field women have stepped into being Truck Drivers too. Though it is a male dominated society, women are increasingly attracted to this profession due to the equal pay and great demand for truck drivers. 

Yogita Raghuvanshi, the first woman truck driver in India from Bhopal has entered one of the most difficult but demanding industry due to the hardships that she had to face in her life.

A tomboy as a child, Ms. Yogita Raghuvanshi is a lawyer but earns her living as the owner of Rajhans Transport Company driving trucks

Stranded on the streets holding the hands of her two children, after her husband passed away at a road accident she decided to flow against the tide. The year was 2003 when Ms. Raghuvanshi, then 33 years old, faced a cloudburst of hardships starting with her lawyer-husband dying in a road accident. She knew that she will not be able to earn much as a fresher in the profession of law. Though she lost all the property, she transferred her husband’s trucking company in her name and contacted their former drivers to ply the trucks. The best decision she made was to become a truck driver herself.

Yes she has faced a lot of issues as truck driver like being out half a month, not able to use toilets used by the male truck drivers who are predominant, etc., but for her all these are just minor issues

She holds up her dignity as a woman again when she says: “Women are stronger than men in controlling their behavior better, and education helps one exercise restraint.”


TYPES OF SHIPS


Based on the usage, the ships are classified into the following types:

  • Container Ships– Container ship, as the name indicates are oceangoing vessel designed to transport large, standard-sized containers of freight.
  • Bulk Carrier Ships – Bulk carriers are a type of ship which transports cargoes (generally dry cargo) in bulk quantities. They carry unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, steel coils and cement, in its cargo hold.
  • Tanker Ships– Liquid cargo are carried by specialised vessels called Tanker Ships. They are used to transport or store liquids or gases in bulk.
  • Roll-on Roll-Off Ships– These type of vessels are used to carry wheeled cargo such as cars, trucks, semi-trailer trucks, trailers, and railroad cars, that are driven on and off the ship on their own wheels or using a platform vehicle, such as a self-propelled modular transporter.
  • Passenger Ships – As the name suggests these are used to transit passengers.
  • Offshore Vessels– When construction work has to be done at sea, offshore vessels are used.
  • Fishing Vessels– Ships or boats used for recreational or commercial fishing at sea are called fishing vessels.
  • Speciality Vessels– Speciality vessels are constructed and used for specific purposes like seismic vessels, hydrographic vessels, oceanographic vessels, polar vessels etc.
  • High-Speed Craft– High-speed crafts are a special type of technologically advanced high-performance (typically high speed) marine vehicles. Though most of these technologies are not used in commercial vessels, a few have been successfully implemented and tested in conventional merchant vessels of small scale.
  • Dredgers – Dredgers are vessels with excavation tools used for removing sand and other types of deposits from the seabed. Dredgers are used for several purposes such as making shallow coastal areas navigational, deep-sea mining etc.

ELASTIC LOGISTICS


Elastic logistics refers to a model of conducting business that’s flexible and agile enough to upscale or downscale consistent with the stress of the market.

Advantages of elastic logistics

• Maximizes and fills loads/capacity, especially for LTL shipments
• Optimizes routes for faster delivery and enhanced transport efficiency
• Reduces over-manufacturing and over-Stocking
• Diminishes price volatility
• Minimizes Risk
• Increases efficiency at multiple checkpoints of supply chain
• Enhances “perfect order fulfilment”
• Improves customer service

Importance of Elastic Logistics

When it involves logistics, lean business practices don’t work. Although they’re meant to be flexible, they’re not adjusted for logistics, primarily as per the variable demand in modern ecommerce. Lean business models might work well for manufacturing (first-mile) and therefore the shelf stock (last-mile) industries; they’re not tailored for logistics (middle-mile).
Elastic logistics tends to fill these gaps alongside the middle-miles and warehousing. Practically, the importance of elastic logistics within the supply chain remains ambiguous; however, it’s developed to regulate variables like sailing schedules, container usage, and carrier space, to form the availability chain simpler and performance with a minimal amount of waste.

Some of the issues elastic logistics overcomes include

• Over-manufacturing
• Overstocking
• Half-full vessels
• Price volatility

Elastic logistics has only recently become popular because technology advancements are a necessity so as for this type of model to figure. Data analytics and tracking make it easier to predict what’s getting to happen then create plans to reply effectively and in real-time.


REVERSE LOGISTICS


Reverse logistics is the set of activities that is conducted after the sale of a product to recapture value and end the product’s lifecycle. It typically involves returning a product to the manufacturer or distributor or forwarding it on for servicing, renovation or recycling.

When a manufacturer’s product normally moves through the supply chain network, it is to reach the distributor or customer. Any process or management after the delivery of the product involves reverse logistics. If the product is defective, the customer would return the product. The manufacturing firm would then have to organise shipping of the defective product, testing the product, dismantling, repairing, recycling or disposing the product. The product would travel in reverse through the supply chain network in order to retain any use from the defective product. The logistics for such matters is reverse logistics.

5 R’s of Reverse Logistics

    1. Returns

      The first step in Reverse Logistics is “Returns”. Customer return products if it is defective, damaged, fails to meet expectations. etc.

    2. Recalls

      Another way parts and products are returned is through recalls. A critical reverse logistics category, recalls are more complex than basic returns because they typically involve a product defect or potential hazard and may be subject to government regulations, liability concerns or reporting requirements.

    3. Repair

      Not all products that is returned goes to waste. Certain products can be repaired and brought back to the stock.

    4. Repackaging

      There are customers who return products may be because they did not like the product and not due to damage or similar reasons. Such products can be repacked and returned to inventory

    5. Recycling, disposal, and disposition

      The focus on recycling returned or end-of-life parts, components and products is driving more sustainable practices in every industry, but particularly so in high-tech. When products reach the ends of their useful lives and must be scrapped, electronic manufacturers are increasingly finding safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly ways to dispose of them. That might mean engaging third-party recycling companies to collect/reclaim waste and dispose of assets for them.


Logistics in FMCG


Logistics in simple words refers to the overall process of managing resources from acquisition, storage and transportation to their final destination.

Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) are products that sell quickly at relatively low cost. FMCGs have a short shelf life because of high consumer demand. Since these goods have short life and in high demand for customers, they have to be transported at a faster rate. Logistics therefore plays a vital role. Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) are closely associated with end-users. The volume of products for shipment in this industry is quite large. As long as the distribution channels are wide, the role of Logistics also become crucial and important.

How FMCG can be benefitted with Logistics

  1. The Just-In-Time Inventory: This is a strategy that manufacturers utilize to increase efficiency and decrease waste by receiving goods only as they are needed in the manufacturing process, thereby reducing the cost of inventory. This prevents the hoarding of unwanted items. As the stock reduces, the order for new materials will be placed automatically.
  2. Demand and Supply Synchronization: the technology enables the company to determine its material needs by analyzing its demand and supply. The company then plans to acquire those materials through the logistics performance metrics reporting solution for logistic visibility for FMCG industries.
  3. Implementation Process: This process includes supplier management. The executives set up a supplier of a given type of material via logistics e-documents. The supplier is given specifications of the needs of the business. A new Supplier will be brought into the processes by logistics performance metrics if in case the supplier is unable to meet the demands of the business.
  4. Transportation Process: It covers all the aspects of how FMCG products are transported. The logistics e-documents include the complete arrangement and control of transportation. The logistics oversee the modes of transportation and provide for the most reliable and cost-effective ones, which aid to logistics performance metrics reporting solution.

With all the above points it is important to note the vital role that logistics plays in FMCG Sector. FMCG sector becomes successful only when it reaches the end customer and for Logistics is an inevitable part.


Different Types of Ports


A port is defined as an area on both land and water, whether on the sea or river, that provides facilities for shipping vessels to load and unload their cargo or in other words it can be defined as a harbour or an area that is able to provide shelter to numerous boats and vessels (transferring people or cargo), and can also allow constant or periodic transaction of shipment. In simple words, a port is a place to facilitate loading as well as unloading of vessels. Technically speaking it is a convergence point between freight circulation domains.

Types of Ports

  1. Inland Ports-These type of ports are built on comparatively smaller water bodies such as rivers or lakes. These are used either for cargo purpose or for passengers or for both. Inland Ports are constructed or naturally maintained ports at the coastline of small waterways like lake, river or estuaries and rarely seen at sea coasts too.
  2. Fishing Ports – As the name suggests fishing port is a port or harbour for landing and distributing fish and relies upon the availability of fishes in that region of the ocean. A fishing port can be an inland port or a seaport.
  3. Warm Water Ports- In simple words Warm Water port is a port where water does not freeze in winter. This prevents from shutting down of ports during winter. This will help in boosting the economy as trade will happen throughout the year.
  4. Dry Ports- Dry ports are defined as inland terminals that can be interconnected with a seaport via road or rail transportation facilities, and they usually act as centres of multimodal logistics.
  5. Sea Ports- Seaports are the most common types of ports around the world which are used for commercial shipping activities. These types of ports are built on a sea location and enable the accommodation of both small and large vessels.

Among all these types of ports, seaports are the largest and busiest type of ports. This is due to the reason that seaport serves to both cargoes as well as passengers. So more facilities and equipment are available there which results in the employment of more personnel as a port authority.


Cold Chain Logistics


Cold Chain Logistics also known as Chill Chain Is the transportation of temperature-controlled goods. In other words it is the technology and process that allows for the safe transport of temperature-sensitive goods and products along the supply chain. This is important while transferring perishable goods from the point of origin through the distribution chain to the final consumer in order to maintain quality and safety.

It is most commonly used in food and pharmaceuticals since 1950s.It was most often used for preserving animal-based cells or tissue. As medical breakthroughs, such as in cancer treatment, have taken place, the demand for cold chain systems has grown. But today the breakout of COVID-19 pandemic has affected the human as a whole. The vaccines were the need of the hour and finally resulted in the development of Vaccines. Cold Chain Logistics plays an important role because the vaccines can be transported only under controlled temperature.

 The common temperature range for a cold chain in pharmaceutical industries is 2 to 8 °C, but the specific temperature (and time at temperature) tolerances depend on the actual product being shipped.

Benefits of Cold Chain Management

  • Eliminate food safety risks.
  • Reduce thermal abuse within the cold chain.
  • Increase food quality.
  • Increase the shelf life of food products.
  • Eliminate finger pointing between franchisee, distributor and supplier.
  • Increase cold chain efficiency and productivity.
  • Extend product shelf life.

Risks of Cold Chain Management

  • Damaged cooler/freezer doors 
  • condendensation  
  • Excessive heat exposure
  • Damaged Goods

Some of the Cold Chain Logistics companies in India are Snowman Logistics Ltd, Cold speed Logistics & Trades Pvt. Ltd, Coldman Logistics, Crystal Logistic Cool Chain Limited, Inext logistics & supply chain pvt ltd, Etc.,


Shipping Pool


A shipping pool is defined when a group of similar merchant vessels are grouped together for administrative purposes. According to a prearranged agreement, their earnings are pooled and distributed to the vessel owners. In other words, a group of ship owners pool their vessels wherein the earnings are pooled together and distributed among them on a pre-approved weighting system. Here similar vessel types and sizes of various ownerships form one alliance with the aim to minimise risks and maximise revenue.

Characteristics of a Pool

  • Similar Tonnage
  • Central Administration (Pool Management Company/Operator)
  • Joint Marketing
  • Negotiation of Freight Rates
  • Centralization of Voyage Costs
  • Freight Collection
  • Weighing System
  • Revenue Distribution
  • Fair Share.

Advantages

  • Ability to undertake CoA
  • Economies of scope
  • Diversification and Risk spreading
  • Ability to benefit from volume discount 
  • Secure cash flow even when vessel is unemployed

Disadvantages

  • The fear of losing ship owners’ identity 
  • Decision making process 
  • Unfair distribution of profits 
  • Long-term commitment 
  • Loss of market presence of know –how
  • Cultural differences

Though there are disadvantages, Shipping Pools are an unavoidable part of shipping which cannot be overlooked as they provide access to remote markets and cargoes, as well as collective knowledge and expertise. It is important to note that owners can benefit from being members of a Pool as they are being provided with security and stable revenue in a volatile market.


B2B Ecommerce


B2B ECOMMERCE

B2B E-Commerce (Business to Business Electronic Commerce) is the process of sale of products and services between companies through an online sales portal. On the other hand in B2C (Business to Customer) the online business is transacted between a business and individual customers (not a business entity).

Though B2C Ecommerce transactions are relatively simple, B2B transactions are bit complex. Prices are generally fixed, shipping is straightforward, and quantities are low in In B2C. On the contrary, B2B transactions prices are highly variable, relying on a number of pricing variables throughout. Because business are much larger entities, the volume of products and services are much higher and have much more complicated shipping requirements. More complex tax and regulatory impediments have to be dealt in B2B E Commerce markets.

Features of B2B Ecommerce

1. Buyers plan for purchases and make recurring purchases
2. Purchases often involve several layers of approval and may involve different departments
3. Purchases are based on long-term and on-going relationships.
4. Prices are usually negotiated individually.

Advantages of B2B Ecommerce

1. Increased Reach- The B2B portals of ecommerce offer a way of increasing reach to customers and making your organization and products known by more potential customers.
2. Streamlining, transparency and efficiency- The B2B ecommerce will streamline customer interactions by enabling the process of ordering making it reliable and efficient.
3. Better management of suppliers and customers- Both the suppliers and customers are better managed in the concept of B2B ecommerce. Ultimately both are benefitted.
4. More sales- You will not only reach new clients, but ecommerce will also allow you to quickly implement the automated up-sell and cross-sell program of recommendation, providing suggestions to clients on your site and making them buy related products or products containing more functionality and features.


Collaborative Robots (Cobots) in Logistics


What are Cobots

Cobots, or collaborative robots, are robots made for direct human robot interaction where humans and robots are working together in close when compared to the traditional method of robots working in isolation. This is very closely applicable in warehouses. As humans and robots have to work in correlation Cobots are built undertaking safety measures with lightweight construction materials, rounded edges, and inherent limitation of speed and force, or on sensors and software that ensures safe behaviour.

Cobots in Logistics

At present, robots are being utilized for specific tasks, such as picking and packing up items from one place to another over and over again. Here Cobots never replace human jobs but may instead create new jobs, in which manpower is required to work in accordance with the precision of Cobots. And that is obvious; Cobots are just robots that are capable of working with human ability and flexibility.

Advantages of Cobots

  • Reduced Costs and Increased revenue – Though initial cost is high, Cobots boost productivity and optimize human labour
  • Easy Initialisation – It is easy to implement Cobots in the existing system
  • Safety Enhanced – In most of the warehouse facilities, the human labor is at risk and prone to error. Cobots have become a solution to this.
  • Enhanced Productivity – Cobots guide humans and remain them focussed. Thus increase productivity.

Though Cobots are not being used in 80 percent of the Logistics industry at present, it is definitely going to be a necessity not only in logistics but in industries like manufacturing and production also.


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